[THE FOUNDER OF FREEDOM AND ACCORD PARTY] Original portrait photograph signed by Miralay Sadik Beg in his uniform, one of 150 Personae Non Gratae (150'likler = Hundredandfiftyers) in Turkish Republic from the Committee Union and Progress.
MIRALAY SADIK BEY, (The founder of 'Hürriyet ve Itilâf Party', Turkish soldier and politician), (1860-1941).
23-February-1934 [Photograph Studio Not Described], Mersin, 1934.
Original b/w photograph in its special cardboard. Signed and inscribed in Mersin, February, 23, 1934 as 'Kenan Bey kardesime: Miralay Sadik.'. No photograph studio's emblem. 24 x 21 cm. Miralay Sadik Bey, (Miralay or Mîr-i alay (Gendarmerie: Alaybeyi ) was a military rank of the Ottoman army and navy. It corresponds to a Colonel (modern Turkish: Albay). Miralay is a compound word composed of Mir (commander) and Alay (regiment). The rank was junior to the Mirliva and superior to the Kaymakam (Lieutenant Colonel).), (1860-1941), an Ottoman soldier and politician. He graduated from Mekteb-i Harbiye (Militarian Academy) in 1882. He went for duty to Trablusgarb (Libya), Syria, and Macedonia. He was in Manastir City, joined to Jalvatiyya order, and then joined to Ittihad ve Terakki Party (Committee Union and Progress) in secret (1906). He was the leader of Hâlaskâr Zâbitân (Saviour officers -Ottoman Turkish: Halâskâr Zâbitân-) was the name of a secret organization during the dissolution era of the Ottoman Empire), during the Bab-i Âlî raid in 1912, but it was failed. After a fail assassination of Mahmoud Chevket Pasha (Mahmud Sevket Pasa), he escaped to Paris, after that Egypt on the eve of the Balkan Wars (1912-1913). He was in adjacent relation to the British always. He returned to the country (25 April 1919) after Armistice (30 October 1918), and was elected to Heyet-i Ayan. And was elected to Hürriyet ve Itilâf Party -Committee Freedom and Entente- in 1920. He captured the management of the British Friendship Society in 1921. He was a dissident to Ankara Government during the Turkish National Struggle, but after the achievement of Ankara Government, he went to Romania with an English ship. Therefore he was got into '150 personae non-gratae of Turkey'. After the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923), the newly established Republic of Turkey presented a list of 600 names to the Conference of Lausanne, which were to be declared personae non-gratae. Later, a list comprising only 150 of these, put into effect by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on April 23, 1924 (revised on June 1, 1924), was included in the Treaty of Lausanne. The list (known as Yüzellilikler in Turkish, literally, Hundredandfiftyers), which is a who's who of the Ottoman Empire, had the purpose of eliminating the ruling elite of Ottomans from the Republic. The list is famous as it became the center of discussions of the nature of the new Republic: mainly, whether the Republic was to remain a continuation of the old Empire or not. The list has served as proof that the administration and ideologists of the Empire were not transferred to the Republic. The formation of this list is also related to studies analyzing the jurisdictional conflict between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Ottoman Empire. These powers were fighting each other for their existence, as they were both active (using diplomatic and military means) until the Conference of Lausanne On June 28, 1938, the law restricting the entry of these people into Turkey was lifted, with the return of only a few on the list. In very good+ condition.
Signed by the author.