[THE WORLD KASHGÂRÎ SAW: THE FIRST ARABIC WORLD MAP / MAPPAMONDO] [The first printed edition of the Kashgârî's first map in Arabic showing the world added to Diwan al-Lughat al-Turk prepared in 1074 printed firstly in 1917].
KASGARLI MAHMUD [MAHMUD IBN HUSSAIN IBN MOHAMMAD AL-KASHGARÎ], (1008-1102).
[Amire Printing House]., Constantinople, [AH 1333] = 1917 AD.
Original printed color map. 30x29,5 cm. In Arabic. Folded. Probably it's from Dîwân Lughât al-Turk printed in 1331-1333 [AD 1915-1917]. Extremely rare. Kashgarî was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar. Kashgari, who lived in the second half of the 11th century and put out a dictionary called "Divan-ü Lugati't-Türk", was a linguist in the Turkish language. His father, Hussayn, was the mayor of Barsgan, a town in the southeastern part of the lake of Issyk-Kul (nowadays the village of Barskoon in Northern Kyrgyzstan's Issyk-Kul Region) and related to the ruling dynasty of Kara-Khanid Khanate. Divan-ü Lugati't-Türk, which occupies a particular place in Turkish language souvenirs of the 11th century, is not only a dictionary; but also an encyclopedia that consists of valuable information about Turkish history, geography, mythology, folklore, folk literature, and Turkish culture. Divan-ü Lügat was started to be written on January 25, 1072. Kasgâri made corrections four times after he had finished writing this book and completed it on February 10th, 1074. He finished his work during the period in which AlKaim was an Abbasid caliph, but he presented the book to Al-Muktedi Billah who took the place of him. After a famous librarian and book collector, Ali Emiri Efendi had got Divan-i Lugat copied by Muhammed; with the mediation of Sadrazam Talat Pasha, this Arabic copy was printed in three volumes in Istanbul under the supervision of Kilisli Rifat Bilge (1915-1917). In Kasgârli Mahmud's first Turkish World Map, which he added to his work called Divan-ü Lugati't Türk, the places, in which the Turks lived, and the nations and the countries, which they have communicated with, have been pointed out. This map includes a large part of Middle Asia, North Africa, and China. It is bounded by the River Volga on the west. It indicates that the world is smooth like a tray but circular, has the features of a plan. On the map, the mountains have been displayed in red, seas in green, rivers in blue and sandy places in yellow. The center of the map is the city Balasagun in which the Turkish / Turkic sovereigns lived. The Lake Isig is very close to this city but not signed with its name. It is normal that Kasgârli was not hesitant while choosing the center of the map because of being from these lands. Therefore, Kasgârli's own lands became the center of the world on his map. Kasgârli, who had never neglected Turkish superiority, did not hesitate to show his nationalism at this point. The other geographical names, the countries, and the names of places have also been arranged based on the center of the map. According to the ancient Turkish traditions, the directions are parallel to the ones in Orkhon inscriptions. Therefore, he formed the main direction center of the map correctly. The importance given to the places, in which the Turks lived, was also given to other countries and nations that were in communication with the Turks. The places or the nations that are not in relation to Turks have not been situated on the map. The formation of the center with the city Balasagun, pointing out the places covered by Turks very carefully and showing the names of places clearly indicate that the map is a work of a Turkish geographer. In Hun Turks' Era, in the life of the Middle Asia State Organization, it became a Turkish tradition to give map as a gift among the members of the palace because of Bairams. The country map, which was sent to the Chinese Emperor by a foreman of Hun, had the meaning of entering the nationality. Mahmud's Map has got a great value in terms of 11th-century expansion of Turkic tribes in Central Asia, although the existence of two ancient Turkish maps belonging to the East Turkestan is known. The Turkish clans, whose places and residential regions have been shown on the map, are made up of twelve main origins according to Kasgârli Mahmud's ethnic classification. Each clan is divided into other different clans in their own structure Only the main clans were included in the council. The Turkish clans and descendants have been neglected because of forming a great number of people. Only the ones who were accepted as a requirement and the ones whom everybody had to know were included in the council. (Source: The Illustrated History Of Turkish Cartography).