[OP-ART IN TURKEY] Op-art: Modern sanat semineri. [i.e. Op-art: A modern art seminar]

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Prep. by BALAMIR ALI GÜVEN, (Turkish architect); KUTLU ALEMDAR, (Turkish architect)., Privately Published., Istanbul, [ca. 1969].

Contemporary cloth bdg. 4to. (30 x 21 cm). In Turkish with English and German visual material. 14, [1] p., 17 plates.

Chapograph print. Extremely rare first and the earliest printing material in book form (both in scarce institutional holdings and market rarity), which has brought the concept of optical art to Turkey. This compilation and work were prepared by the contemporary Turkish architects Güven and Alemdar, who were experts on urbanization. The book includes nine chapters excluding the plates: History of op-art.; Optical effects: Black and white.; Optical effects: Color.; Reliefs, moving objects, and light.; Special joint characteristics in 'Op'.; 'Op' and other art genres.; Leading names in the European school of 'Op'.; British and American 'Op'.; Critics.; and Plates. Plates were taken from various American art magazines published in the period and German advertisements from German magazines which reflected 'Optic art'.

Op art, short for optical art, is a style of visual art using optical illusions. Op artworks are abstract, with many better-known pieces created in black and white. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibrating patterns, or swelling or warping. The antecedents of op art, in terms of graphic and color effects, can be traced back to Neo-impressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Dada. László Moholy-Nagy produced photographic op art and taught the subject in the Bauhaus. Time magazine coined the term op art in 1964, in response to Julian Stanczak's show Optical Paintings at the Martha Jackson Gallery, to mean a form of abstract art (specifically non-objective art) that uses optical illusions. Works then labeled as "op art" had actually been produced for several years before Time's 1964 article. For instance, Victor Vasarely's painting Zebras (1938) is made up entirely of curvilinear black and white stripes not contained by contour lines. Consequently, the stripes appear to both meld into and burst forth from the surrounding background. Also, the early black and white "dazzle" panels that John McHale installed at the ‘This Is Tomorrow’ exhibit in 1956 and his ‘Pandora’ series at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 1962 demonstrated proto-op art tendencies. Martin Gardner featured Op Art and its relation to mathematics in his July 1965 Mathematical Games column in Scientific American. In Italy, Franco Grignani, who originally trained as an architect, became a leading force of graphic design where op art or kinetic art was the focus. His Woolmark logo (launched in Britain in 1964) is probably the most famous of all his designs. Op art perhaps more closely derives from the constructivist practices of the Bauhaus. This German school, founded by Walter Gropius, stressed the relationship of form and function within a framework of analysis and rationality. Students learned to focus on the overall design or entire composition to present unified works. Op art also stems from trompe-l'œil and anamorphosis. Links with psychological research have also been made, particularly with Gestalt theory and psychophysiology. When the Bauhaus was forced to close in 1933, many of its instructors fled to the United States. There, the movement took root in Chicago and eventually at the Black Mountain College in Asheville, North Carolina, where Anni and Josef Albers eventually gave lecture [.] (Source: Wikipedia).

Not located in OCLC and the Turkish National Library.