[MAP OF OTTOMAN PALESTINE AND JERUSALEM] [Filistin - Kudüs].
[OTTOMAN MAP OF PALESTINE].
[Ottoman Directorate of Mapping]., The Ottoman Empire, [c. 1910].
Original lithograph map with brown, white and blue tons. 81x57 cm. In Ottoman script (Old Turkish with Arabic letters). All toponyms are in Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. Scale: 1:500,000. Shows Mediterranean shores on the north, Bahr-i Lût [i.e. the Dead Sea], Aqaba Bay, areas of Arabic tribes in very detail, in addition, special huge lands like 'Al-Hism Land'. Also, it shows holy places, antiquities, fortresses, rivers; and Turkish Sanjaks, Qazas, Nahiyes, Qariyes based on the Ottoman administrative system. Cartographer is not indicated, but, it's composed for military purposes in the last period of the Imperial Ottoman, especially for showing Arabian tribes spreading over vast areas in its period, just before World War 1 (date of the printing of this map), such as 'Houtat Tribe'. A very detailed and attractive map of Palestine and Quds area and their topography. Following the Muslim conquest of Palestine in 636-640, several Muslim ruling dynasties succeeded each other as they wrestled control of Palestine: the Rashiduns; the Umayyads, who built the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem; the Abbasids; the semi-independent Tulunids and the Ikhshidids; the Fatimids; and the Seljuks. In 1099, the Crusaders established the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Palestine, which the Ayyubid Sultanate conquered in 1187. The Crusaders failed to retake Palestine despite further attempts. The Egyptian Mamluks took Palestine from the Mongols (who had conquered the Ayyubid Sultanate) in 1260. The Ottomans captured Palestine in 1516 and ruled it until Egypt took it in 1832. Eight years later, the United Kingdom intervened and returned the region to the Ottomans. Considerable demographic changes happened during the 19th century and with the regional migrations of Druze, Circassians, and Bedouin tribes. The emergence of Zionism also brought many Jewish immigrants from Europe and the revival of the Hebrew language. Arabs in Palestine, both Christian and Muslim, settled and Bedouin, were historically split between the Qays and Yaman factions. These divisions had their origins in pre-Islamic tribal feuds between Northern Arabians (Qaysis) and Southern Arabians (Yamanis). The strife between the two tribal confederacies spread throughout the Arab world with their conquests, subsuming even uninvolved families so that the population of Palestine identified with one or the other. Their conflicts continued after the 8th-century Civil war in Palestine until the early 20th century and gave rise to differences in customs, tradition, and dialect which remain to this day. Beit Sahour was first settled in the 14th century by a handful of Christian and Muslim clans (hamula) from Wadi Musa in Jordan, the Christian Jaraisa and the Muslim Shaybat and Jubran, who came to work as shepherds for Bethlehem's Christian landowners, and they were subsequently joined by other Greek Orthodox immigrants from Egypt in the 17th-18th centuries. Due to the legacy of the Ottoman period, the ethnic origins of some rural and urban Palestinians are either Albanian, Circassian, or from other non-Arab populations.