[FIRST MUSLIM / TURKISH OBJECTIONS TO DARWINISM] Maddiyûn [sic. Maddiyyûn-Madyûn] mezhebinin izmihlâli. Maddiyun mezhebiyle monizm ve felsefe-i müsbite mezheblerinin kesfiyât-i fenniye ve muhâkemat-i akliye ile red ve ibtali.
ISMAIL FENNI [ERTUGRUL], (1855-1946).
Orhaniye Matbaasi, Ist., 1928.
Contemporary fine dark green cloth bdg. Art-nouveau decorations embossed on boards. Roy. 8vo. (24 x 17 cm). In Ottoman script. 734, ,  p., index. The Scopes trial (1925) fuelled discussion in the United States on the social and political implications of Darwinism. For the defenders of the 1925 Tennessee law - which prohibited the teaching of Darwinism in schools - Darwinism was, amongst other things, responsible for the German militarism which eventually led to the First World War. This view was supported by Ismail Fennî, a late Ottoman intellectual, who authored this book immediately after the trial which aimed to debunk scientific materialism. In it, he claimed that Darwinism blurred the distinction between man and beast and thus destroyed the foundations of morality. However, despite his anti-Darwinist stance, Ismail Fennî argued against laws forbidding the teaching of Darwinism in schools and emphasized that even false theories contributed to the scientific improvement. Indeed, because of his belief in science, he claimed that Muslims should not reject Darwinism if it were supported by future scientific evidence. It is composed of 7+1 chapters to criticize the materialist and positivist philosophical movements and especially the work of the positivist German philosopher Ludwig Bücher 'Kraft und Stoff'. The first part of the book focuses on the evidence presented of the proof of god in the Western and Islamic philosophies. In the second chapter, the issue of immortality of soul and spirit is addressed. In the third chapter, 'the wahdat al-wujud' (vahdet-i vücûd) current is examined. The fourth chapter, examined some famous scholars' thoughts about the matter, materialism, laws of nature, etc. In the fifth chapter, the work of the positivist German philosopher Büchner 'Kraft und Stoff', in the sixth chapter, monism (monism), in the seventh ch. positivism is criticized. In the last ch., there are descriptions and some thoughts on the theory of evolution and the Indian fakirs (fakers). Ismail Fenni Ertugrul was a Turkish mystic, philosopher, writer, musician, lyricist, and composer. He studied traditional madrasah education and learned Arabic and Persian. He was in various state posts. After the retirement, he began to be interested in poetry, music, and philosophy. Before his death, he donated his library including 9050 books to the Library of Beyazit. (Source: An Ottoman response to Darwinism: Ismail Fennî on Islam and evolution, Bilgili). First and Only Edition. Extremely rare. Özege 11879. Alper 195.