[FIRST AUTOPSY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE] Makâlât-i tibbiyye. [i.e. Articles on medicine]. Translated by Efendizâde Abdülhak Hayrullah

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CARL AMBROISE [KARL AMBROS] BERNARD, (1808-1844), Takvimhane-i Âmire, Istanbul, [AH.: 1259] = 1843.

New full leather in Ottoman style. Demy 8vo. (22 x 15 cm). In Ottoman script (Old Turkish with Arabic letters). [4], 149 p., 6 folded pages. Hegira: 1259 = Gregorian: 1843. Restored the first text page expertly, slightly stained, overall a very good copy.

First and only edition of this extremely rare book including the description of the first modern forensic autopsy in the Ottoman Empire by Charles [Karl] Ambroice Bernard who established the first modern medical school which modernized the curriculum of medical education in the Islamic world, and the family physician of Sultan Mahmud II and Abdulmecid Han. 

With Sultan's permission (with a special invitation) Dr. Bernard came to the Ottoman land and established the first modern medical school which is named Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane and modernized the curriculum of medical education. He became the family physician of Turkish kings. Dr. Bernard has written four books as a result of his studies in Turkey in his short life. (Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty). In the Ottoman Empire, Dr. Bernard gave the first forensic lesson to medical students in the 5th and 6th grades. The first autopsy in the Ottoman Empire was done in 1843 by him. During the Ottoman period, attempts for getting consent for autopsy and exhumation in suspicious deaths were rejected by the Sheikh al-Islam, the religious chief of the Ottoman Dynasty. Therefore, during that period of time doctors had very limited opportunities for performing autopsies with permission from the padishah. The first modern forensic autopsy, which was also a part of an investigation about the death of a building constructer whose head was crushed after a big stick fell on him was performed in 1841 by Dr. Bernard at the Austrian Hospital. The translation of the first report: 'While a Croatian worker was gathering pieces of wood a big stick fell on his head. He died immediately. His body was brought to Australian Hospital, and the director of Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane monsieur Bernard performed the autopsy. At the same time, I was writing about autopsy findings and other medical school students followed up on the findings of Monsieur Bernard. Monsieur Bernard found that the size of the Croatian worker's heart was 2 times bigger than the normal size. In addition to that, aortic valves were approximately covering the entrance of the aorta. However, this man had a healthier body than many healthy men, and his illness was not known. This man was working as a carrier and was carrying heavy luggage in his daily life. And while he was carrying this luggage he did not complain about anything.'. The following text is originally a part of this book (Makalat-i tibbiyye). This is the 246th article of the book ‘'Helplessness and laxity pave the way for death'. The director of Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane monsieur Bernard did perform the autopsy of an Austrian man also (his name was Luyi). 'At the same time, I was writing about autopsy findings. We found inflammation of the stomach. After the opening, the stomach we discovered focuses on some metastasis. When we asked a nurse about the general medical condition of Luyi before he died she said that he was unable to think straightly and his hands had no sensitivity, he could not feel them.'. This rare medical book includes these autopsy records and notes as well as other medical articles by Bernard. (Sources: Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard: Beginning of Forensic Autopsy in Turkey by Batan et alli.; History of forensic medicine in Turkey, by Cem Uysal.). The first autopsy notes start at 52. page, and another one in 91. page. 

Charles Ambroice Bernard (Karl Ambros in German sources) was an Austrian physician and director of the medical school (Türkischer Biographischer Index). He also was the founder of forensic medicine, other modern medical sciences, and modern medical schools in the Ottoman Empire. 

Özege 11991.; TBTK; 13098.; Three records in OCLC in total in two different registers, Bogaziçi University Library, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Library, and Library of Congress. OCLC 952855689 / 949488288.