[BANNED ANTI-SOVIET TATAR - MANCHUKUO PERIODICAL] Milli Bayrak... = The Milli Bairak Mukden, The National Organ of Idel-Oural Turko-Tatars in the Far East. 1935-1936. Issues in the collection: 1, 2, 51, 68

  • $4,250.00
    Unit price per 
Tax included. Shipping calculated at checkout.


Milli Bayrak Matbaasi [i.e., National Flag Printing House], Mukden, 1935-1936.

COMPLETE TITLE: [BANNED ANTI-SOVIET TATAR - MANCHUKUO PERIODICAL & CENSORSHIP IN TURKEY, RUSSIA AND CHINA / PRINTING ACTIVITIES IN DIASPORA / EMMIGRE LITERATURE] Milli Bayrak: Iaraq sharqdagi Idil-Ural Türk-Tatarlarynyng Atanalyq Gazetasi va Birinchi Qurultaiynyng Tarjuman Afkaridir = The Milli Bairak Mukden, The National Organ of Idel-Oural Turko-Tatars in the Far East. 1935-1936. Issues in the collection: 1, 2, 51, 68.

In contemporary dark green cloth. Gilt title to front board. Tabloid size (55 x 40 cm). In Tatar with Arabic script, title and address details are in English and Chinese as well. Each issue is 4 p., except for 68, which is 12 p. Wear to some folds, slight foxing on paper. Overall, a very good collection.

A very rare four issues (first two with 51 and 68) of newspaper gathered in one volume, published in Tatar language in Mukden by Rukiye and Ibrahim Devlet Kildi, who supported the independence of the Idel-Ural region (literally Volga-Ural, is a historical region in Eastern Europe, in what is today Russia) and were expelled from Russia, while they were in exile in China. This periodical was interestingly banned also in Turkey in the 1930s & 40s.

This illustrated newspaper focuses on Tatar minorities and political and social conditions of the Islamic minorities in China and Russia. The newspaper's harsh criticisms and strongly worded articles caused it to be firstly censored, then closed and banned in the Soviet Union and China, including Turkey.

Although the editor-in-chief of this very rare anti-Soviet newspaper was Ibrahim Devletkildi, the publishing duties of the newspaper were largely in the hands of his wife, Rukiye Hanim. The copies were written by hand and reproduced on printing machines. When Mukden was occupied by the USSR during World War II, both were also arrested and taken to Chita in Zabaykalsky Krai. As a result of the trials, they were both sentenced to ten years in a labour camp and five years in exile.

“The Turk-Tatars communities, similarly to peoples of other nationalities, started to come to the Far East with the construction of CER beginning in 1898. This flow of emigrants lasted until the 1920s: The Tatar-Bashkirs settled in Manchuria (which became the autonomous state of Manchutigo under the Japanese protectorate in the years 1932-1945 Korea (which was annexed by the Japanese in 1910), China and Japan, at least in 25 to 30 different cities, towns, villages, and stations. When their number reached a certain level, they opened religious and educational facilities to preserve their religious and national identity. They also established, after the Mukden Kurultai (Convention) on 4-14 February 1935, a "Far East Idel-Ural Turk-Tatar Muslim National Centre". This centre started to publish a weekly called Milli Bayrak (National Banner), which was run by Ibrahim Devletkildi (1901-1967), as editor, who was also at the same time the Secretary of the Centre. But the main Ieading force was Rukiye Muhammedish (1908-1989), who was writing most of the artides and at the same time working for the Centre's education section. Milli Bayrak published 440 issues until both were arrested by the occupying Soviet Military forces.39 This weekly newspaper was the mouthpiece of the Centre. All religious, national days, and historical events were reminded to the people. In other words, it had a very important function.” (Devlet).

Ms. Rukiye and Mr. Ibrahim were the parents of Nadir Devlet, a scholar living in Turkey. After they were exiled, another Tatar couple who were friends of Devletkildis brought Nadir Devlet to Beijing through a Jewish merchant from Mukden and adopted him. This family played a big role in Nadir Devlet's survival and becoming a successful scholar. The family gave up their surname and took the surname "Devlet" in Turkey. Thus, they ensured that Nadir Devlet would not lose his connection with his roots.

After Mao took power in China at the end of World War II, Nadir Bey's new family moved to Shanghai. They obtained a visa to Turkey with the help of their daughter’s friends working at the Turkish embassy. They set out from Shanghai on January 18, 1949, and after a difficult seventy-day ship journey, they arrived in Istanbul on March 31, 1949, and started a new life there.

In 1961, after six years of exile, the owners of Milli Bayrak Newspaper Ibrahim and Rukiye Devletkildi were allowed to return to Petropavlovsk (Kizlyar), the city where Ibrahim was born. They died in Kazan.

In the 1930s, the Far Eastern Tatar emigre communities used the Arabic script as the basis of the Tatar written tradition for the longest period (at least until the late 1940s - early 1950s).

Exceedingly rare first issues of the Tatar Manchukuo periodical published in Mukden, both institutional holdings, market, and past auction records. As of April 2024, only the British Library holds this title, however, it’s unclear how many issues there are in the library (OCLC 1295107437).

Provenance: The Baraz Family Collection, from Ahmet Ziya Baraz.