[BANNED ANTI-SMOKING MANIFESTO IN THE ISLAMIC SOCIETY] Risâletu mürsîdü'l-ihvân fî hakki'd-duhân. [i.e. Treatise enlightening our brothers about smoking and hookah]

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OFLU ELHAC MUMAMMAD [MEHMED] EMIN EFENDI, (1815-1902), N.p., Istanbul, [AH 1309] = 1892.

Original wrappers. Taken from a volume. Wear on spine, not bound. Overall a good copy. Large roy. 8vo. (25 x 17 cm). In Ottoman script (Old Turkish with Arabic letters). 24 p.

Lithographed edition. First and only edition of this extremely rare of this lithographed treatise of "anti-cigarette manifesto", claiming that smoking is "haram" and forbidden according to Islam in 23 articles, the harms of smoking in 43 articles, and the benefits of giving up every kind of tobaccos in 20 articles. After Immediately after the publication of the book, Emin Efendi was sentenced to exile for two years and the book was banned. According to some views, the author's exile was due to the force of the tobacco cartels in the Imperial Ottoman.

Written in nashk calligraphic style with "hareke".

"Tobacco, an important crop in Turkish agriculture, was introduced to the Ottoman Empire by European merchants in the late 16th century, probably from its Caribbean sources. Tobacco consumption became widespread in a short period of time, but there were several attempts to ban smoking for various reasons. According to the Ottoman historian Peçevî, the British brought tobacco to Istanbul around the 1600s. They sold it, claiming it had medicinal value. It quickly became popular first among the men of pleasure and then other people. Eventually, Sultan Ahmed I banned the plantation, purchase, and consumption of tobacco in 1609, pointing out the fact that it prevented people from doing their jobs. Another reason for the ban was the increasing price of wax, which was used in the disinfestations of tobacco. People, however, defied the ban, which was followed by other decrees. It was until Murad IV's ascension to the throne, that one day, an addict's tobacco stick fell down and caused a fire while he fell asleep in a boat near the shores of Cibali, a district in Istanbul, in 1633. More than 20,000 houses were reduced to ashes and 50,000 people became homeless. Following the incident, the sultan, who was already known for his anger, ordered a strict ban on tobacco. He destroyed coffeehouses and, in disguise, detected those who continued to use tobacco and kill them. After Sultan Mehmed IV took the throne, the ban was lifted with a "fatwa" by Shaykh al-Islam Bahaî Efendi, who was also a tobacco addict. It started to be planted again in 41 towns and over 10,000 people earned their livelihoods from tobacco plantation and production. Within a short time, oriental tobacco became world-famous, especially the types planted in Giannitsa and Xanthi in the Balkans, and in Bitlis and Semdinli in East Anatolia.

The state imposed a tax on tobacco in 1688 which led to smuggling, eventually forcing the state to decrease taxes. Turkish tobacco is still world-famous. Cigarette boxes with Turkey-themed pictures and emblems used to be in great demand. They were even considered precious gifts by those who traveled abroad.

Tackling the use of tobacco from an Islamic perspective had already started in that period. For some Ottoman scholars, tobacco was to be prohibited (haram) while others disapproved (makruh) and some believed it was permissible (halal). Those in favor of the prohibition of tobacco used to relate it to Prophet Muhammad's ban on consuming intoxicating or relaxant products. Others believed tobacco was nothing but waste and some people compared tobacco to other food items that have an odor - like onion and garlic - which after consuming, one is not recommended to go out into public to avoid giving discomfort to others. Lastly, there were others who said it was impossible to give a fatwa because there is not any proof in the Quran or Hadith, the sources of the Sharia." (Ekinci).

Özege 14918.; Not in OCLC.